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There are also other systems and other operating modes, such as <command>runit</command> or <command>minit</command>, but they are relatively specialized and not widespread.
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<command>systemd</command> is a relatively recent “init system”, and although it was already available, to a certain extent, in <emphasis role="distribution">Wheezy</emphasis>, it has only become the default in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis>. Previous releases relied, by default, on the “System V init” (in the <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> package), a much more traditional system. We describe the System V init later on.
<command>systemd</command> 是相当新的 “启动系统”,虽然在 <emphasis role="distribution">Wheezy</emphasis> 里已经可以使用到某个程度,直到 Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis> 才纳入默认值。稍最的版本,缺省是 “System V init” (在 <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> 软件包内),算是传统的系统。以下描述的是 System V init。
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<emphasis>ALTERNATIVE</emphasis> Other boot systems
<emphasis>选择</emphasis> 其它启动系统
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This book describes the boot system used by default in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis> (as implemented by the <emphasis role="pkg">systemd</emphasis> package), as well as the previous default, <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>, which is derived and inherited from <emphasis>System V</emphasis> Unix systems; there are others.
本书描述的是 Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis> (如 <emphasis role="pkg">systemd</emphasis> 软件包所应用的) 缺省的启动系统,以及更早的默认值,<emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>,源自于 <emphasis>System V</emphasis> Unix 系统;还有若干其他的。
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<emphasis role="pkg">file-rc</emphasis> is a boot system with a very simple process. It keeps the principle of runlevels, but replaces the directories and symbolic links with a configuration file, which indicates to <command>init</command> the processes that must be started and their launch order.
<emphasis role="pkg">file-rc</emphasis> 是一个过程很简单的启动系统。它保留运行等级的原则,但是用配置文件取代了目录和符号链接,来告诉<command>init</command>哪些进程必须启动及其顺序。
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The <command>upstart</command> system is still not perfectly tested on Debian. It is event based: init scripts are no longer executed in a sequential order but in response to events such as the completion of another script upon which they are dependent. This system, started by Ubuntu, is present in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis>, but is not the default; it comes, in fact, as a replacement for <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>, and one of the tasks launched by <command>upstart</command> is to launch the scripts written for traditional systems, especially those from the <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> package.
此 <command>upstart</command> 系统在 Debian 上仍未完整测试。它以事件为基础:不再依序运行 init 脚本,但以回应另个依附的脚本。由 Ubuntu 开始的这个系统,列在 Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis> 内,但还不是缺省;事实上,做为 <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis> 的替代品,由 <command>upstart</command> 启动的工作,系用来启动为传统系统而设的,特别是来自 <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> 软件包的脚本。
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There are also other systems and other operating modes, such as <command>runit</command> or <command>minit</command>, but they are relatively specialized and not widespread.
也有其他的系统和操作模式,例如:<command>runit</command> 或者 <command>minit</command>,但是他们相对专门且没有那么普遍。
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<emphasis>SPECIFIC CASE</emphasis> Booting from the network
<emphasis>特例</emphasis> 从网络启动
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In some configurations, the BIOS may be configured not to execute the MBR, but to seek its equivalent on the network, making it possible to build computers without a hard drive, or which are completely reinstalled on each boot. This option is not available on all hardware and it generally requires an appropriate combination of BIOS and network card.
在某些配置中,BIOS 可以配置为不执行 MBR,而是在网络上寻找类似的东西,这样就可以制作不需要硬盘的电脑,在每次启动后可以完全重装。不是所有的硬件都支持该选项,它需要 BIOS 和网卡很好的配合。
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Booting from the network can be used to launch the <command>debian-installer</command> or FAI (see <xref linkend="sect.installation-methods" />).
从网络启动可以用于执行 <command>debian-installer</command> or FAI (参考 <xref linkend="sect.installation-methods" />)。
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<emphasis>BACK TO BASICS</emphasis> The process, a program instance
<emphasis>回到基础</emphasis>进程,一个程序实例
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<primary>process</primary>
<primary>进程</primary>

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Allan Nordhøy 9 months ago Source string comment

This is no longer true.

Glossary

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system 系统

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3 years ago
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zh-CN/​09_unix-services.po, string 30
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