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There are also other systems and other operating modes, such as <command>runit</command> or <command>minit</command>, but they are relatively specialized and not widespread.
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<command>systemd</command> is a relatively recent “init system”, and although it was already available, to a certain extent, in <emphasis role="distribution">Wheezy</emphasis>, it has only become the default in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis>. Previous releases relied, by default, on the “System V init” (in the <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> package), a much more traditional system. We describe the System V init later on.
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<emphasis>ALTERNATIVE</emphasis> Other boot systems
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This book describes the boot system used by default in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis> (as implemented by the <emphasis role="pkg">systemd</emphasis> package), as well as the previous default, <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>, which is derived and inherited from <emphasis>System V</emphasis> Unix systems; there are others.
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<emphasis role="pkg">file-rc</emphasis> is a boot system with a very simple process. It keeps the principle of runlevels, but replaces the directories and symbolic links with a configuration file, which indicates to <command>init</command> the processes that must be started and their launch order.
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The <command>upstart</command> system is still not perfectly tested on Debian. It is event based: init scripts are no longer executed in a sequential order but in response to events such as the completion of another script upon which they are dependent. This system, started by Ubuntu, is present in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis>, but is not the default; it comes, in fact, as a replacement for <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>, and one of the tasks launched by <command>upstart</command> is to launch the scripts written for traditional systems, especially those from the <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> package.
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There are also other systems and other operating modes, such as <command>runit</command> or <command>minit</command>, but they are relatively specialized and not widespread.
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<emphasis>SPECIFIC CASE</emphasis> Booting from the network
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In some configurations, the BIOS may be configured not to execute the MBR, but to seek its equivalent on the network, making it possible to build computers without a hard drive, or which are completely reinstalled on each boot. This option is not available on all hardware and it generally requires an appropriate combination of BIOS and network card.
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Booting from the network can be used to launch the <command>debian-installer</command> or FAI (see <xref linkend="sect.installation-methods" />).
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<emphasis>BACK TO BASICS</emphasis> The process, a program instance
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<primary>process</primary>

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Allan Nordhøy 10 months ago Source string comment

This is no longer true.

Glossary

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xml-text
Source string age
3 years ago
Translation file
da-DK/09_unix-services.po, string 30
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Medium