There are also other systems and other operating modes, such as <command>runit</command> or <command>minit</command>, but they are relatively specialized and not widespread.
<command>systemd</command> is a relatively recent “init system”, and although it was already available, to a certain extent, in <emphasis role="distribution">Wheezy</emphasis>, it has only become the default in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis>. Previous releases relied, by default, on the “System V init” (in the <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> package), a much more traditional system. We describe the System V init later on.
<emphasis>ALTERNATIVE</emphasis> Other boot systems
This book describes the boot system used by default in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis> (as implemented by the <emphasis role="pkg">systemd</emphasis> package), as well as the previous default, <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>, which is derived and inherited from <emphasis>System V</emphasis> Unix systems; there are others.
<emphasis role="pkg">file-rc</emphasis> is a boot system with a very simple process. It keeps the principle of runlevels, but replaces the directories and symbolic links with a configuration file, which indicates to <command>init</command> the processes that must be started and their launch order.
The <command>upstart</command> system is still not perfectly tested on Debian. It is event based: init scripts are no longer executed in a sequential order but in response to events such as the completion of another script upon which they are dependent. This system, started by Ubuntu, is present in Debian <emphasis role="distribution">Jessie</emphasis>, but is not the default; it comes, in fact, as a replacement for <emphasis role="pkg">sysvinit</emphasis>, and one of the tasks launched by <command>upstart</command> is to launch the scripts written for traditional systems, especially those from the <emphasis role="pkg">sysv-rc</emphasis> package.
There are also other systems and other operating modes, such as <command>runit</command> or <command>minit</command>, but they are relatively specialized and not widespread.
<emphasis>SPECIFIC CASE</emphasis> Booting from the network
In some configurations, the BIOS may be configured not to execute the MBR, but to seek its equivalent on the network, making it possible to build computers without a hard drive, or which are completely reinstalled on each boot. This option is not available on all hardware and it generally requires an appropriate combination of BIOS and network card.
Booting from the network can be used to launch the <command>debian-installer</command> or FAI (see <xref linkend="sect.installation-methods" />).
<emphasis>BACK TO BASICS</emphasis> The process, a program instance



Allan Nordhøy 10 months ago Source string comment

This is no longer true.


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3 years ago
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