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Packaging System: Tools and Fundamental Principles
包管理系统:工具和基本原则
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As a Debian system administrator, you will routinely handle <filename>.deb</filename> packages, since they contain consistent functional units (applications, documentation, etc.), whose installation and maintenance they facilitate. It is therefore a good idea to know what they are and how to use them.
作为 Debian 系统管理员,你经常地要处理 <filename>.deb</filename> 包,因为它们包含一致的功能单元(应用程序、文档等),使得安装和维护更容易。所以了解它们是什么及如何使用它们是个好主意。
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This chapter describes the structure and contents of “binary” and “source” packages. The former are <filename>.deb</filename> files, directly usable by <command>dpkg</command>, while the latter contain the source code, as well as instructions for building binary packages.
本章介绍了“二进制”和“源码”包的结构和内容。前者是 <filename>.deb</filename> 文件,可以用 <command>dpkg</command> 命令直接处理;而后者则包含程序的源代码,以及创建二进制包的说明。
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Structure of a Binary Package
二进制包的结构
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<primary>package</primary><secondary>binary package</secondary>
<primary>包</primary><secondary>二进制包</secondary>
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<primary><command>ar</command></primary>
<primary><command>ar</command></primary>
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The Debian package format is designed so that its content may be extracted on any Unix system that has the classic commands <command>ar</command>, <command>tar</command>, and <command>gzip</command> (sometimes <command>xz</command> or <command>bzip2</command>). This seemingly trivial property is important for portability and disaster recovery.
Debian 软件包格式的设计满足这样的目的,在任何有如下命令:<command>ar</command>、<command>tar</command> 和 <command>gzip</command> (有些系统会有 <command>xz</command> 或者 <command>bzip2</command>)的 Unix 系统上均能顺利解压。这是个看起来非常简单,却又对可移植性和灾难恢复非常重要的特性。
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Imagine, for example, that you mistakenly deleted the <command>dpkg</command> program, and that you could thus no longer install Debian packages. <command>dpkg</command> being a Debian package itself, it would seem your system would be done for... Fortunately, you know the format of a package and can therefore download the <filename>.deb</filename> file of the <emphasis role="pkg">dpkg</emphasis> package and install it manually (see sidebar <xref linkend="sidebar.dpkg-apt-ar" />). If by some misfortune one or more of the programs <command>ar</command>, <command>tar</command> or <command>gzip</command>/<command>xz</command>/<command>bzip2</command> have disappeared, you will only need to copy the missing program from another system (since each of these operates in a completely autonomous manner, without dependencies, a simple copy will suffice). If your system suffered some even more outrageous fortune, and even these don't work (maybe the deepest system libraries are missing?), you should try the static version of <command>busybox</command> (provided in the <emphasis role="pkg">busybox-static</emphasis> package), which is even more self-contained, and provides subcommands such as <command>busybox ar</command>, <command>busybox tar</command> and <command>busybox gunzip</command>.
想象一下,比如您误删了<command>dpkg</command> 程序,您因此不能再安装 Debian 软件包了。 <command>dpkg</command> 本身作为一个 Debian 软件包,它看起来像是系统应该做的... 幸运的是,您知晓软件包的格式,并下载 <emphasis role="pkg">dpkg</emphasis> 包 <filename>.deb</filename> d文件,并手动安装(参见侧边栏<xref linkend="sidebar.dpkg-apt-ar" />)。如在某些不幸的情况下,一个或多个程序 <command>ar</command>、 <command>tar</command> 或者 <command>gzip</command>/<command>xz</command>/<command>bzip2</command> 失踪了,您只能从其他系统复制丢失的程序(因为它们中的任一个都以全自动方式工作,没有依赖问题,简单复制即可)。如果您的系统出现了更加不幸的问题,甚至以上手段无法奏效(可能是深处的系统库文件丢失?),您应当试一下 <command>busybox</command>的静态版本 (在 <emphasis role="pkg">busybox-static</emphasis> 包中提供),它更加独立化,并能提供如下子命令:<command>busybox ar</command>、<command>busybox tar</command> 、<command>busybox gunzip</command>。
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<emphasis>TOOLS</emphasis> <command>dpkg</command>, <command>APT</command> and <command>ar</command>
<emphasis>工具</emphasis> <command>dpkg</command>、<command>APT</command> 和 <command>ar</command>
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<primary><command>dpkg</command></primary>
<primary><command>dpkg</command></primary>
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<primary>APT</primary>
<primary>APT</primary>

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