Linux, as you already know, is only a kernel. The expressions, “Linux distribution” and “Linux system” are, thus, incorrect: they are, in reality, distributions or systems <emphasis>based on</emphasis> Linux. These expressions fail to mention the software that always completes this kernel, among which are the programs developed by the GNU Project. Dr. Richard Stallman, founder of this project, insists that the expression “GNU/Linux” be systematically used, in order to better recognize the important contributions made by the GNU Project and the principles of freedom upon which they are founded.
Linux ,正如你已经知道的,只是一个内核。因此“Linux 发行版”及“Linux 系统”并不是正确的表达:它们只是 <emphasis>基于</emphasis> Linux 的发行版或系统。这些表达都没能提到由GNU 项目所开发的那些完善这个内核的软件。GNU 项目的发起者,Richard Stallman 坚持系统地使用“GNU/Linux”这个表达,从而更好地认可 GNU 项目作出的巨大贡献以及它的基石——自由主义。
Debian has chosen to follow this recommendation, and, thus, name its distributions accordingly (thus, the latest stable release is Debian GNU/Linux 8).
Debian 选择遵从这些建议, 从而据此命名其发行版 (因此,最新的 stable 版本为 Debian GNU/Linux 8)。
Several factors have dictated this choice. The system administrator, who was familiar with this distribution, ensured it was listed among the candidates for the computer system overhaul. Difficult economic conditions and ferocious competition have limited the budget for this operation, despite its critical importance for the future of the company. This is why Open Source solutions were swiftly chosen: several recent studies indicate they are less expensive than proprietary solutions while providing equal or better quality of service so long as qualified personnel are available to run them.
<emphasis>IN PRACTICE</emphasis> Total cost of ownership (TCO)
<emphasis>实践</emphasis> 总体拥有成本
<primary>Total Cost of Ownership</primary>
The Total Cost of Ownership is the total of all money expended for the possession or acquisition of an item, in this case referring to the operating system. This price includes any possible license fee, costs for training personnel to work with the new software, replacement of machines that are too slow, additional repairs, etc. Everything arising directly from the initial choice is taken into account.
This TCO, which varies according to the criteria chosen in the assessment thereof, is rarely significant when taken in isolation. However, it is very interesting to compare TCOs for different options if they are calculated according to the same rules. This assessment table is, thus, of paramount importance, and it is easy to manipulate it in order to draw a predefined conclusion. Thus, the TCO for a single machine doesn't make sense, since the cost of an administrator is also reflected in the total number of machines they manage, a number which obviously depends on the operating system and tools proposed.
Among free operating systems, the IT department looked at the free BSD systems (OpenBSD, FreeBSD, and NetBSD), GNU Hurd, and Linux distributions. GNU Hurd, which has not yet released a stable version, was immediately rejected. The choice is simpler between BSD and Linux. The former have many merits, especially on servers. Pragmatism, however, led to choosing a Linux system, since its installed base and popularity are both very significant and have many positive consequences. One of these consequences is that it is easier to find qualified personnel to administer Linux machines than technicians experienced with BSD. Furthermore, Linux adapts to newer hardware faster than BSD (although they are often neck and neck in this race). Finally, Linux distributions are often more adapted to user-friendly graphical user interfaces, indispensable for beginners during migration of all office machines to a new system.
在免费操作系统中,IT部门研究了免费的BSD系统(OpenBSD,FreeBSD和NetBSD),GNU Hurd和Linux发行版。 GNU Hurd尚未发布稳定版本因此被即刻否决了。在BSD和Linux之间选择更简单。前者有很多优点,特别是在服务器上。然而,实用主义导致选择了Linux,因为其已安装的基数和普及性均有显著和大量的积极效应。比起BSD,更容易找到合格的人员管理Linux机器。此外,Linux适应新硬件的速度要快于BSD(尽管它们经常在这场比赛中经常是并驾齐驱的)。最后,Linux发行版通常更适合于用户友好的图形用户界面,对于初学者从办公机器迁移到新系统时是必不可少的。
<emphasis>ALTERNATIVE</emphasis> Debian GNU/kFreeBSD
<emphasis>替代选择</emphasis> Debian GNU/kFreeBSD



Luis García a year ago Source string comment

Total Cost Ownership = Coste Total de la Propiedad


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