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<primary>TCO</primary>
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<primary>Linux</primary>
<primary>Linux</primary>
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Linux, as you already know, is only a kernel. The expressions, “Linux distribution” and “Linux system” are, thus, incorrect: they are, in reality, distributions or systems <emphasis>based on</emphasis> Linux. These expressions fail to mention the software that always completes this kernel, among which are the programs developed by the GNU Project. Dr. Richard Stallman, founder of this project, insists that the expression “GNU/Linux” be systematically used, in order to better recognize the important contributions made by the GNU Project and the principles of freedom upon which they are founded.
Linux ,正如你已经知道的,只是一个内核。因此“Linux 发行版”及“Linux 系统”并不是正确的表达:它们只是 <emphasis>基于</emphasis> Linux 的发行版或系统。这些表达都没能提到由GNU 项目所开发的那些完善这个内核的软件。GNU 项目的发起者,Richard Stallman 坚持系统地使用“GNU/Linux”这个表达,从而更好地认可 GNU 项目作出的巨大贡献以及它的基石——自由主义。
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Debian has chosen to follow this recommendation, and, thus, name its distributions accordingly (thus, the latest stable release is Debian GNU/Linux 8).
Debian 选择遵从这些建议, 从而据此命名其发行版 (因此,最新的 stable 版本为 Debian GNU/Linux 8)。
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Several factors have dictated this choice. The system administrator, who was familiar with this distribution, ensured it was listed among the candidates for the computer system overhaul. Difficult economic conditions and ferocious competition have limited the budget for this operation, despite its critical importance for the future of the company. This is why Open Source solutions were swiftly chosen: several recent studies indicate they are less expensive than proprietary solutions while providing equal or better quality of service so long as qualified personnel are available to run them.
诸多因素导致了这一选择。熟悉此发行版的系统管理员保证它被作为此次计算机系统升级换代的备选方案之一。困难的经济条件及残酷的竞争限制了升级的预算,尽管它对公司的未来有着至关重要的影响。这就是为什么开源方案被很快地采纳:最近的研究指出它们相比较于不开源的专有方案来说更加便宜,其质量并不低于专有方案,只要有训练有素的员工去运维这些开源项目。
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<emphasis>IN PRACTICE</emphasis> Total cost of ownership (TCO)
<emphasis>实践</emphasis> 总体拥有成本
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<primary>TCO</primary>
<primary>TCO</primary>
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<primary>Total Cost of Ownership</primary>
<primary>总体拥有成本(TCO)</primary>
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The Total Cost of Ownership is the total of all money expended for the possession or acquisition of an item, in this case referring to the operating system. This price includes any possible license fee, costs for training personnel to work with the new software, replacement of machines that are too slow, additional repairs, etc. Everything arising directly from the initial choice is taken into account.
总体拥有成本是指持有或获取一个物品所花费的金钱总额,在此处即指操作系统。它包括了任何可能的许可证花销,对使用新软件工作的员工的培训费用,更换过于缓慢的机器的费用以及额外的维修费用等等。任何从最初选择当中直接产生的花销都被计算在内。
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This TCO, which varies according to the criteria chosen in the assessment thereof, is rarely significant when taken in isolation. However, it is very interesting to compare TCOs for different options if they are calculated according to the same rules. This assessment table is, thus, of paramount importance, and it is easy to manipulate it in order to draw a predefined conclusion. Thus, the TCO for a single machine doesn't make sense, since the cost of an administrator is also reflected in the total number of machines they manage, a number which obviously depends on the operating system and tools proposed.
总体拥有成本(TCO)根据其评估中选择的标准而变化,孤立地看没有意义。然而,如果根据相同的规则计算不同的选项的总体拥有成本并对其做对比则有意义。因此,该评估表至关重要,并且可轻易操纵它以便得出预定的结论。因此,单个机器的总体拥有成本没有意义,因为管理员的成本可分摊到他们管理的机器的总数中,机器数显然取决于操作系统和工具。
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Among free operating systems, the IT department looked at the free BSD systems (OpenBSD, FreeBSD, and NetBSD), GNU Hurd, and Linux distributions. GNU Hurd, which has not yet released a stable version, was immediately rejected. The choice is simpler between BSD and Linux. The former have many merits, especially on servers. Pragmatism, however, led to choosing a Linux system, since its installed base and popularity are both very significant and have many positive consequences. One of these consequences is that it is easier to find qualified personnel to administer Linux machines than technicians experienced with BSD. Furthermore, Linux adapts to newer hardware faster than BSD (although they are often neck and neck in this race). Finally, Linux distributions are often more adapted to user-friendly graphical user interfaces, indispensable for beginners during migration of all office machines to a new system.
在免费操作系统中,IT部门研究了免费的BSD系统(OpenBSD,FreeBSD和NetBSD),GNU Hurd和Linux发行版。 GNU Hurd尚未发布稳定版本因此被即刻否决了。在BSD和Linux之间选择更简单。前者有很多优点,特别是在服务器上。然而,实用主义导致选择了Linux,因为其已安装的基数和普及性均有显著和大量的积极效应。比起BSD,更容易找到合格的人员管理Linux机器。此外,Linux适应新硬件的速度要快于BSD(尽管它们经常在这场比赛中经常是并驾齐驱的)。最后,Linux发行版通常更适合于用户友好的图形用户界面,对于初学者从办公机器迁移到新系统时是必不可少的。
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<emphasis>ALTERNATIVE</emphasis> Debian GNU/kFreeBSD
<emphasis>替代选择</emphasis> Debian GNU/kFreeBSD

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Luis García a year ago Source string comment

Total Cost Ownership = Coste Total de la Propiedad
TCP = CTP

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